By Benjamin Burr (auth.), Ronald L. Phillips, Indra K. Vasil (eds.)
The double helix structure of DNA was once elucidated in 1953. two decades later, in 1973, the invention of restrict enzymes helped to create recombinant DNA molecules in vitro. the consequences of those strong and novel tools of molecular biology, and their capability within the genetic manipulation and development of microbes, crops and animals, grew to become more and more glaring, and resulted in the beginning of contemporary biotechnology. the 1st transgenic vegetation during which a bacterial gene were stably built-in have been produced in 1983, and by way of 1993 transgenic vegetation were produced in all significant crop species, together with the cereals and the legumes. those notable achievements have led to the construction of plants which are proof against powerful yet environmentally secure herbicides, or to viral pathogens and bug pests. In different cases genes were brought that hold up fruit ripening, or bring up starch content material, or reason male sterility. each one of these manipulations are in keeping with the advent of a unmarried gene - normally of bacterial foundation - that regulates a tremendous monogenic trait, into the crop of selection. some of the engineered plants at the moment are below box trials and are anticipated to be commercially produced in the following few years. The early successes in plant biotechnology resulted in the conclusion that extra molecular development of crops would require a radical realizing of the molecular foundation of plant improvement, and the id and personality ization of genes that keep an eye on agronomically vital multi genic traits.
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Additional info for DNA-based markers in plants
1993). Applications of DNA markers to plant breeding and genetIcs have been described in previous reviews (Soller and Beckmann 1983; Tanksley et al. 1989). In this chapter, practical strategies for constructing genetIc llllkage maps uSlllg DNA markers will be described. Because of the breadth of thIS area, only an introduction to the concepts and techniques can realIstIcally be covered. 2. 1. The mappmg populatIOn The most critical decision III constructing a linkage map with DNA markers is the mapping population.
Litt, M. A. (1989) A hypervariable micro satellite revealed by in vitro amplification of a dinucleotide repeat within the cardiac muscle actin gene. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 44: 397-401. , Mori, N. and Tsunewaki, K. (1990) Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in wheat. I. Genomic DNA library construction and RFLP analysis in common wheat. Jpn. J. Genet. 65: 367-380. K. D. (1991) Rapid identification of markers linked to a Pseudomonas resistance gene in tomato by using random primers and near-isogenic lines.
Tropical tree genomes and maize contain (GT)n and (AG)n micro satellites in 104 to 10 5 copies per genome (Condit and Hubbell 1991). A GGC micro satellite is widely distributed in the rice genome, and several alleles which differ in copy number of the basic repeat are present for one locus which has been characterized (Zhao and Kochert 1992). (GT)n micro satellites are also found in rice, and when oligonucleotides of (GT)n are used as hybridization probes on Southern blots of rice genomic DNA, a large number of restriction fragments are detected, and the resultant patterns are useful as DNA fingerprints (X.
DNA-based markers in plants by Benjamin Burr (auth.), Ronald L. Phillips, Indra K. Vasil (eds.)