By Michael Alpert
Этот текст - об испанском тайном иудаизме и инквизиции, стремившейся искоренить " иудейскую ересь " среди крещенных евреев и потомков испанских евреев, крещенных между 1391 и 1492 гг. В течение столетий они тайно твердо придерживались веры своих предков в Испании, которая была полностью католической. В книге приводятся примеры частных случаев из жизни крипто-иудеев на протяжении 250-летней кампании инквизиции: мужчин и женщин, старых и молодых, богатых и бедных, которые были арестованы, содержались в тюрьмах, подвергались допросам и пыткам в поисках доказательства их скрытого иудаизма. Используя документы допросов заключенных и их признаний, автор анализирует характер испанского иудаизма, ритуалов, домашней жизни и тайной веры, которая упорно сохранялась многими поколениями. Крипто-иудаизм отмечался испанскими властями, как серьезная угроза даже в середине XVIII в. пока инквизиция, в конце концов, одержала победу.Образцы сканов:
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Extra resources for Crypto-Judaism and the Spanish Inquisition
Condemned irrevocably to die at the stake, they refused to ask for absolution even as they choked in the smoke and as the accompanying monks thrust their crucifixes into their faces to make them beg for absolution. With a word they could have been instantly strangled by the public executioner, who stood ready with his garrotting cord, but they refused. 5 Suspicion that the New Christians were seeking to leave the Iberian peninsula to be able to Judaize freely led to a royal decree of 8 June 1605 recommending the authorities at frontiers and ports to be extremely vigilant in tracking the movements of suspected Judaizers.
Bernáldez also quotes Meir Melamed, the son-in-law of Abraham Seneor, who had given these figures to his father-in-law, though Bernáldez does not say where he obtained this information. Henry Kamen finds these figures unacceptable against the background of a total population which he gives as 5,265,000; 170,000 Jews would be about 3 per cent, in a Spain where a century of pressure had decimated the Jewish communities. Kamen prefers a figure of 80,000 to 90,000 Jews, which he bases on The Inquisition Begins Work 29 taxation statistics founded on the number of households with actual incomes high enough to pay taxes.
31 Refugees in Italy and Turkey: Gracia Mendes By the time the Inquisition was set up in Portugal in 1536, the New Christians had enjoyed nearly forty years without Catholic The Inquisition Begins Work 35 catechization or inquisitorial pressure, more than a generation in which they had been able to develop a particular form of secret Judaism which had taken deep root among them. When the Inquisition in Portugal finally began to act, the Portuguese crypto-Jews began to seek ways out of the country with their property and families.
Crypto-Judaism and the Spanish Inquisition by Michael Alpert