By Yoshinori Asakawa, Agnieszka Ludwiczuk, Fumihiro Nagashima, A. Douglas Kinghorn, Heinz Falk, Junichi Kobayashi
For a few 50 years, Professor Asakawa and his workforce have centred their examine at the chemical components of bryophytes and feature came across that those crops comprise huge numbers of secondary metabolites, corresponding to terpenoids, acetogenins, and fragrant compounds consultant of many new skeletons, which convey attention-grabbing organic actions. person terpenoids, while stumbled on as ingredients of either a bryophyte and a better plant, are likely to ensue in numerous enantiomeric varieties. Professor Asakawa has lined the literature on bryophytes in previous volumes of Progress within the Chemistry of natural average Products, particularly, Volumes forty two (1982) and sixty five (1995). because the booklet of the latter quantity, loads of new info has seemed on bryophytes. One instance is that recognized intercourse pheromones of algae were came across in liverworts, indicating that a few individuals of the latter taxonomic crew could originate from brown algae. From details supplied during this quantity, it is recommended that orders of the Marchantiophyta may be mixed.
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Extra info for Chemical Constituents of Bryophytes: Bio- and Chemical Diversity, Biological Activity, and Chemosystematics
Iwatsuki listed 332 genera and 1,135 species of mosses occurring in Japan (368). Thus, Japan is rich in moss species. Anderson and coworkers reported that there are 1,320 species of mosses from North America. The area of Japan is about 370,000 km2 and hence only 1/48 of the area of North America (29). In Mongolia, 442 species of mosses from 152 genera and 38 families have been reported, and their distribution pattern resembles that of Siberia (904). Mainland China (genera/species: 409/1,835), Taiwan (278/835), Indochina (249/ 953), West Malaysia and Singapore (145/466), Sulawesi (144/340), Java (204/566), Sumatra (8,163/489), Borneo (190/673), Papua New Guinea (263/918), the Lesser Sunda Islands (162/368) and the Philippines (246/743) are also rich in mosses (473).
Additional abundant components were terpinolene (15), limonene (19), and p-cymen-8-ol (22). One of the Costa Rican specimens produced 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1,6-olide (29) as the principal component. 1 Monoterpenoids 37 (19), p-cymene (21), b-phellandrene (27), and ascaridole (39), of which limonene (19) and ascaridole (39) were the most abundant. Older specimens of P. rutilans from Cuba and Ecuador were also analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which indicated that the major components of the former specimen were menthone (31) and p-cymen-8-ol (22), and for the latter specimen, pulegone (28) was obtained (693).
Thus, the absolute stereochemistry of these compounds was determined as being identical (931). 8 Æ0 C15H26 C15H24 C15H24O2 C15H24O C15H22 C19H26O5 a-Neocallitropsene Acora-2,4-diene Acoradiepoxide 2,11-Acoradien-4-ol 7,8-Dehydro-a-acoradiene Barbiacoradienone (929) (928) (539) (424) (289) (590) (595) (931) (596) (593) (291) Reboulia hemisphaerica Tritomaria quinquedentata Trocholejeunea sandvicensis Unidentified Frullania sp. 1 À193 (126) Porella subobtusa Porella swartziana (848) (569) (126) (848) Porella swartziana (126) Porella swartziana (126) (848) Porella swartziana (126) Calypogeia muelleriana (933) Calypogeia suecica (934) Radula perrottetii (492) (826) Bazzania japonica (485) Calypogeia muelleriana (933) Calypogeia suecica (934) Marchantia paleacea var.
Chemical Constituents of Bryophytes: Bio- and Chemical Diversity, Biological Activity, and Chemosystematics by Yoshinori Asakawa, Agnieszka Ludwiczuk, Fumihiro Nagashima, A. Douglas Kinghorn, Heinz Falk, Junichi Kobayashi