By Sabine Fillinger, Yigal Elad
The fungal genus Botrytis is the focal point of in depth clinical learn world wide. The advanced interactions among this pathogen and the crops it infects and the industrial significance of the illnesses brought on by Botrytis (principally gray mildew) on greater than 1400 species of cultivated vegetation pre- and post-harvest, render this pathogen of specific curiosity to farmers, advisers, scholars and researchers in lots of fields world wide. This 20-chapter ebook is a entire treatise overlaying the quickly constructing technological know-how of Botrytis and reflecting the foremost advancements in stories of this fungus. it is going to function a resource of basic details for experts in agriculture and horticulture, and likewise for college students and scientists attracted to the biology of this attention-grabbing, multifaceted phytopathogenic fungal species.
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Additional info for Botrytis – the Fungus, the Pathogen and its Management in Agricultural Systems
M. De Miccolis Angelini et al. Sexual Behavior and Mating System B. cinerea apothecia have been rarely found in nature, but apothecia might be overlooked in the field. The only reports are by Polach and Abawi (1975) in New York, Blank (1988) in Switzerland, and Vanev (1988) in Bulgaria. This suggests that the sexual process does not play an important role in the population biology of the fungus. As opposite, the broad variability among fungal isolates and the very high number of individual haplotypes (Van der Vlugt-Bergmans et al.
1994) and Büttner and Tudzynski (1996). They used fluorescence microscopy to estimate DNA content of individual nuclei and reported differences among strains and even among nuclei in the mycelium of a single isolate. These findings must be considered in light of knowledge that most strains are fertile in sexual crosses and yield viable ascospores. It may be that sexual crossing process restricts participation to haploid nuclei, whereas somatic cell function permits heteroploidy. If this is so, ascospores may initially be strictly haploid, but their growth may produce heteroploid colonies (Beever and Weeds 2004).
In some cases known concentrations of conidia have been used as standards but again direct comparisons between labs is not practical. Of course, with DNA-based quantification measures the inherent problem with variably multinucleate hyphae and conidia is that the final result will provide a quantitative measure reflecting the number of nuclei present rather than the number of conidia or hyphae. Phillips et al. (1987) have shown that the number of nuclei in macroconidia is variable and dependent on glucose concentration in the media.
Botrytis – the Fungus, the Pathogen and its Management in Agricultural Systems by Sabine Fillinger, Yigal Elad