By W. W. Eckenfelder and D. J. O'Connor (Auth.)
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Nitrification commenced after the third day of aeration. When sludge from an activated sludge process treating semichemical and pulping wastes was aerated, 7 per cent per day of the volatile solids were destroyed by oxidation. The ratio of oxygen consumed to volatile solids destroyed was 1-57. Aerating a 1 per cent sludge Gehm (1953) found a reduction in BOD of 82 per cent after 5 days aeration. The oxidation rate of activated sludge from pharmaceutical waste oxidation showed that a 55-60 per cent reduction in sludge solids and a 60-85 per cent reduction in BOD can be attained in a 5-6 day aeration period.
As the oxidation of sludge proceeds, cellular nitrogen is broken down and released to solution in the form of ammonia. Under continuous oxidation this ammonia may be further oxidized to nitrates. A portion of the cellular constituents are highly resistant to oxidation and result in an accumulation of solids in the process. McKinney (I960) and Kountzer al. (1959) have indicated that the nonoxidizable solids buildup from the auto-oxidation of biological sludge may amount to 25 per cent of the sludge produced by synthesis.
Manometric Analysis In the direct method a sludge sample is respired in a closed oxygen or air atmosphere at constant temperature. The sample is agitated and the oxygen utilized is measured with respect to time by noting the decrease in gas volume or pressure. The Sierp and Warburg assemblies are typical examples. The Warburg apparatus consists of a reaction flask connected to a manometer in a constant temperature bath. The sludge-waste mixture is kept agitated by a shakei assembly. As oxygen is biologically utilized it is replenished from the gaseous phase above the sample.
Biological Waste Treatment by W. W. Eckenfelder and D. J. O'Connor (Auth.)