By Ladd, Gary W.
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Extra resources for Appraising the human developmental sciences : essays in honor of Merrill-Palmer quarterly
The subject animal should then be credited with some understanding of belief if it acts as if it expects that the returning individual will search for the object in A rather than B. Two Austrian psychologists, Josef Perner and Heinz Wimmer, gave these ideas research expression in the early 1980s. In a pioneering and highly influential series of studies, they used the “unexpected transfer” method proposed by the philosophers to test young children’s understanding of false belief (Wimmer & Perner, 1983).
The measures can be quantitative or qualitative; that distinction is less important than sampling different classes of evidence represented by verbal statements, molar behaviors or test scores, and biology. If psychologists insist on using a concept based on only one of these sources of information, they must accept the restricted meaning that this strategy requires. If “self-esteem” is inferred only from an adolescent’s answers to a questionnaire, the theoretical meaning of self-esteem is severely constrained.
2002). Cardiovascular reactivity and the presence of rats, friends, and spouses. Pychosomatic Medicine, 64, 727–735. , & Russell, J. (2001). Executive control within strategic deception. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 80, 112–141. Kagan, J. (1984). The nature of the child. New York: Basic Books. Montague, D. P. , & Walker-Andrews, A. S. (2001). Peek-a-boo: A new look at infants’ perception of emotion expression. Developmental Psychology, 37, 826–838. Nelson, R. , & Chiavegatto, S. (2001).
Appraising the human developmental sciences : essays in honor of Merrill-Palmer quarterly by Ladd, Gary W.