By Jonathan Allday
This e-book takes a retrospective examine the Apollo area application and the know-how that was once used to land a guy at the Moon. Jonathan Allday's goals are to provide an explanation for the elemental physics and know-how of spaceflight, and to express the large technological strides that have been made and the commitment of the folks engaged on this system. Physics themes coated contain the legislation of movement, rocketry, the way to manouver in orbit etc. The designs of the Apollo Command, provider and Lunar modules are mentioned and the way those replaced because the plans for the manned undertaking advanced. suggestions platforms, desktops and engines all needed to be constructed for the 1st time. With Apollo as heritage, the booklet is going directly to examine the distance trip, the expertise being built for its substitute, the overseas house Station and the chances for a manned Mars undertaking. eventually, the some distance destiny is taken into account, together with Mars colonies and trips to different stars.
__________В этой книге даётся ретроспективный взгляд на космическую программу "Аполлон" и технологии, которые были использованы для высадки человека на Луну. Джонатан Олдей разъясняет физические и технологические основы космических полётов, рассказывает об огромных технологических успехах и самоотверженности людей, работавших в рамках этой программы. В книге рассматриваются законы движения, принципы ракетостроения, способы маневрирования на орбите и многое другое. Описывается конструкция служебно-командного и лунного модулей КК "Аполлон" и то, как она менялась по ходу программы. Заключительные главы посвящены космическому шаттлу, Международной космической станции и планам пилотируемых полётов на Марс, включая его колонизацию.
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Additional resources for Apollo in Perspective: Spaceflight Then and Now
The main advantage is a wide stability margin for operation over a broad range of mass ﬂow rates. This feature may be attributed to the low sensitivity of the atomization and mixing processes stabilized by the mixer wall to pressure ﬂuctuations and ﬂow-velocity variations. Positioning liquid passages (4) at the periphery of the mixer (5) allows cooling of the ﬁre bottom of the assembly by means of a cone-shaped screen formed by the evaporating-liquid sheet. High-quality atomization achieved by swirling gas and liquid ﬂows allows manufacturing of large injectors with diameters of the mixer (5) in a range of 50 – 60 mm and ﬂow rates of several kilograms per second.
YANG, P. PURI Fig. 8 High ﬂow rate and division injection elements for Chinese YF-1 engine. preferential to make passages (3) chordal, which increases the uniformity of propellant mixing. The diameter of passage (2) usually varies between 6 and 18 mm, depending on the engine thrust requirement. The length of passage (2) is chosen to maximize the Fig. 9 Combustion chamber injector assembly with adjacent bipropellant jet and swirl injectors. DESIGN AND DYNAMICS OF JET AND SWIRL INJECTORS 35 Fig. 10 Pneumatic injectors used in main combustion chambers and gas generators of LRE: a) jet-jet injector; b), c) jet-swirl injector; d), e) swirl-swirl injector; f) slit injector with alternating liquid and gas injection; 1-casing; 2, 9 gas passage; 3liquid passage; 4-liquid manifold; 5-mixer; 6-bottom; 7-vortex chamber; 8-nozzle; 10-gas swirler.
Between the chamber (3), the pylons with tangential passages (6) and casing (1). The mixer (8) is formed between the nozzle (4) and the casing (1). Chordal (9) and radial (10) passages for additional propellant delivery are made in the walls of the casing (1). This injector is designed for two applications: reducing and oxidizing generator gases. These versions differ in the dimensions of the passage cross sections alone. In case reducing gas is fed to the injector through passages (7), liquid oxidizer comes to the chamber (3) through passages (6) (similar to the injector in Fig.
Apollo in Perspective: Spaceflight Then and Now by Jonathan Allday