By William M. Leiter
Affirmative motion has been and remains to be the flashpoint of America’s civil rights time table. but whereas the affirmative motion literature is voluminous, no finished account of its significant felony and public coverage dimensions exists. Samuel and William M. Leiter study the beginning and development of affirmative motion, its effect on American society, its present kingdom, and its destiny anti-discrimination function, if any. knowledgeable by means of numerous diverse disciplines-law, background, economics, sociology, political technological know-how, city stories, and criminology-the textual content combines the correct felony fabrics with research and statement from numerous specialists. This even-handed presentation of the topic of affirmative motion is bound to be a priceless relief to these trying to comprehend the issue’s many complexities.
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Extra resources for Affirmative Action in Antidiscrimination Law and Policy: An Overview and Synthesis
37 This self-help scenario combined two elements. First, the then prevailing “free labor” model of equal opportunity: “a classless utopia [in which] . . ”38 Second, the sovereign power of the franchise. 40 In short, what Reconstruction’s version of equal opportunity offered the freedmen focused upon a guarantee of political, but not economic autonomy. In the end, neither was forthcoming. The prospect of political emancipation, seemingly at hand when the freedmen gained the vote, was a mirage.
S. businesses and private voluntary organizations, historically black colleges and universities, and higher educational institutions with more that 40 percent Hispanic student enrollment. . Federal Procurement Policies and Practices . . Throughout the federal government, several programs seek to increase procurement and contracting with minority- and women-owned businesses. The largest of these efforts are government-wide programs overseen by the [Small Business Administration] SBA; this overall effort is supplemented in some cases by agency-speciﬁc initiatives.
The Fourteenth (1868) declared all American-born persons national and state citizens, and prohibited state violation of three general groupings of civil rights (“privileges and immunities,” “equal protection,” and “due process”). 10 The prototypical civil rights statute of the period was the Civil Rights Act of The Roots of Afﬁrmative Action 25 1866,11 the enforcement statute for the Thirteenth Amendment that declared any American-born person a citizen, regardless of race or color; provided that all citizens were entitled to “equal protection” of laws relating to persons or property, and had equal rights to sue, testify, contract, and own property; and authorized criminal prosecution of violators acting “under color of law,” namely, the ofﬁcers of the states and their subdivisions.
Affirmative Action in Antidiscrimination Law and Policy: An Overview and Synthesis by William M. Leiter