Advanced Education Psychology - download pdf or read online

By Tara Chand and Ravi Prakash

ISBN-10: 8173911983

ISBN-13: 9788173911989

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He constantly emphasizes that events affecting an organism must be capable of being described in the language of physical science. To him, the "free inner man" who is held responsible for the behaviour of the external biological organism is only a prescientific substitute for the kinds of external causes of behaviour which are susceptible to scientific analysis. Hence there is no place in scientific psychology for study of the personal experience of a man. Skinner sees the practice of some scientists, who indicate that they are describing only half the universe and that there is another half—a world of self, mind, or consciousness—as a part of the cultural heritage from which science has emerged but which now stands in the way of a unified scientific account of nature.

The resistance to extinction generated by intermittent reinforcement of a response is much greater than that achieved by the same number of reinforcements given for consecutive responses. If we only occasionally reinforce a child's good behaviour, the behaviour survives after reinforcement is discontinued much longer than if we had reinforced every instance up to the same total number of reinforcements. Since intermittent reinforcement generates longer extinction curves than does continuous reinforcement, there is no simple relation between the number of reinforcements and the number of unreinforced responses necessary for extinction.

Skinner's psychology implies a strictly naturalistic determinism. He notes that a scientific conception of human behaviour dictates one practice and a philosophy of personal freedom another; and that a scientific conception of human behaviour entails the acceptance of an assumption of determinism. Determinism means that behaviour is caused, and that the behaviour which appears is the only kind which could have appeared. Skinner emphasizes that the same type of determinism which is commonly accepted as applying to machines applies equally to human beings.

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Advanced Education Psychology by Tara Chand and Ravi Prakash

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