Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations (1996)(en)(48s) by Lower S.K. PDF

By Lower S.K.

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Titration of a weak base with an acid will have exactly the opposite effect. The extent of the jump in the pH at the equivalence point is determined by a combination of effects. In the case of a weak acid, for example, the initial pH is likely to be higher, so the titration curve starts higher. Further, the weaker the acid, the stronger will be its conjugate base, so the higher will be the pH at the equivalence point. These two factors raise the bottom part of the titration curve. The upper extent of the curve is of course limited by the concentration and strength of the titrant.

In its simplest form, this capacity factor is known as the acid neutralizing capacity, denoted [ANC]. In order to employ this concept for a solution of an acid or base in water, it is necessary to identify all species containing more protons and all containing fewer protons than the initial components, and then take the difference between them. As an example, consider a solution of the acid HA in water. The two proton-deficient species possible in such a solution are the conjugate base A− and OH− .

1 The geochemical carbon cycle The carbonate system encompasses virtually all of the environmental compartments– the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and major parts of the lithosphere. The complementary processes of photosynthesis and respiration drive a global cycle in which carbon passes slowly between the atmosphere and the lithosphere, and more rapidly between the atmosphere and the oceans. 2 Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere CO2 has probably always been present in the atmosphere in the relatively small absolute amounts now observed.

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Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations (1996)(en)(48s) by Lower S.K.

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