By Laura A. Janda
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Additional info for A geography of case semantics: the Czech dative and the Russian instrumental
2. of this monograph, shows that the assumption underlying this type of approach - that grammatical meaning is different from lexical meaning - is both true and false. Those who subscribe to the semantic/syntactic dichotomy are correct in seeing that the two kinds of meaning are not identical, but incorrect in pushing this distinction too far. Their meanings can be accessed by the same methods, although they tend to focus on different aspects of the semantic structure of sentences. It is the failure to recognize this subtle yet crucial fact that has permitted the development of this approach.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Instrument Object in Action Sentences Body Part Object in Reflexive Action Sentences Emotions Inexplicable Force Agent in Passive Sentences Matter in Action Sentences Matter in Process Sentences Comparison Manner Space Time Duration Transport Personal Characteristics Predicate Figure 7. Wierzbicka's network 36 Although Deserieva (1974 & 1977) also fails to provide networks for cases, her discussion of them as "semantic fields" is even more suggestive of this sort of structure.
Network structure Although Langacker (1987: 39) deals only with universal prototypes, he makes it clear that he is simply outlining the frontiers; that in-depth studies of natural language cases can and should be undertaken according to this model. Smith 1985 brings us one step closer to actually realizing a cognitive description of the semantics of a case. His aim is to provide a unified account of the various uses of 18 the dative in German. He suggests the following schemas to caption "the defining property" of the nominative, accusative, and dative in German: 25 ~ nom -0 ace dat Figure 2 Figure 2.
A geography of case semantics: the Czech dative and the Russian instrumental by Laura A. Janda